The United States of Trump Corp.: The â€˜Not Normal/New Normal' Governing Style of a Personal Brand
Mired in inconsistency, contradiction, and scandal, Donald J. Trump's presidency appears to be anything but normal. This has prompted a great deal of searching among social scientists and journalists to understand what exactly is behind Trump's erratic governing style. These narratives center the new normal of American presidential politics on the extreme form of Trump's narcissistic behavior and his flagrant commitment to ethno-nationalist, authoritarian, and neoliberal practices. However, because these narratives rely on traditional political strategies and theories, they do not fully capture the most novel aspects of the Trump mode of governance. What is "not normal" about President Donald Trump is that his governing style is irreducible to conventional statecraft and political goals because Trump is not just a celebrity/businessman-turned-politician. Rather, Trump the person is inherently tied to Trump the personal brand, and the governing style of President Trump follows the market-oriented logic of personal brands, which is primarily oriented towards maximizing symbolic capital. Rather than position Trump's governing style as motivated to achieve self-adulation, white supremacy, an authoritarian state, or neoliberal utopia, we reconsider Trump's governing style as an attempt to capture the attention of the collective consciousness and focus it on Trump as a personal brand.
Albright, Madeline. 2018. Fascism: A Warning. New York: Harper Collins.
Anderson, Chris. 2013. â€œThe shared genius of Elon Musk and Steve Jobs.â€ Fortune, (November 21) (https://fortune.com/2013/11/21/the-shared-genius-of-elon-musk-and-steve-jobs/).
Arnsdorf, Isaac. 2018. â€œThe Shadow Rulers of the VA.â€ ProPublica, (August 7) (https://www.propublica.org/article/ike-perlmutter-bruce-moskowitz-marc-sherman-shadow-rulers-of-the-va.)
Babones, Salvatore. 2018. The New Authoritarianism: Trump, Populism, and the Tyranny of Experts. Medford, MA: Polity Press.
Bastos, Wilson, and Sidney J. Levy. 2012. â€œA history of the concept of branding: practice and theory.â€ Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, 4(3): 347-368.
Barrow, Clyde W. 1993. Critical theories of the state: Marxist, Neo-Marxist, Post-Marxist. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
Barrow, Clyde W. 2016. Toward a Critical Theory of States: The Poulantzas-Miliband Debate after Globalization. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Baudrillard, Jean.  2012. Symbolic Exchange and Death, translated by Iain Hamilton Grant. London: Sage.
Baudrillard, Jean.  2008. Fatal Strategies, translated by Philip Beitchman and W. G. J. Niesluchowski. Los Angeles: Semiotext(e).
Beavers, Olivia, and Mike Lillis. 2019. â€œHouse votes to impeach Trump.â€ The Hill, (December 18) (https://thehill.com/homenews/house/475228-house-votes-to-impeach-trump).
Bell, Daniel. 1960. The End of Ideology: On the Exhaustion of Political Ideals in the Fifties. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Bierman, Noah. â€œMust Reads: Whatâ€™s behind all those executive orders Trump loves to sign? Not much.â€ Los Angeles Times, (March 27) (https://www.latimes.com/politics/la-na-pol-trump-executive-orders-ineffective-20190327-story.html).
Biesecker, Michael, Juliet Linderman, and Richard Lardner. 2018. â€œWhat Swamp? Lobbyists get ethics waivers to work for Trump.â€ Associated Press, (March 8) (https://www.apnews.com/2e23b380a1ec4232abde917d8796d7a6).
Billard, Thomas J. 2018. â€œCitizen typography and political brands in the 2016 presidential election campaign.â€ Marketing Theory 18(3): 421-431.
Billard, Thomas, and Rachel E. Moran. 2019. â€œNetworked political brands: consumption, community and political expression in contemporary brand culture.â€ Media, Culture, and Society. doi.org/10.1177/0163443719867301.
Binkley, Collin. 2019. â€œTrump signs bill restoring funding for black colleges.â€ Associated Press, (December 19) (https://apnews.com/c4834e48841d97c5a93312b1bf75302a)
Bobo, Lawrence D. 2017. â€œRacism in Trumpâ€™s America: reflections on culture, sociology, and the 2016 US presidential election.â€ The British Journal of Sociology, 68(S1):S85-S104.
Bonikowski, Bart. 2019. â€œTrumpâ€™s Populism: The Mobilization of Nationalist Cleavages and the Future of U.S. Democracy,â€ in When Democracy Trumps Populism: European and Latin America Lessons for the United States, edited by K. Weyland and R. Madrid, pp. 110-131. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. 2018. Racism Without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in America. 5th ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Bourdieu, Pierre.  1984. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste, translated by Richard Nice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bourdieu, Pierre. 1986. â€œThe Forms of Capital,â€ in Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education, edited by J. Richardson, pp. 241-258. New York: Greenwood. (https://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/bourdieu-forms-capital.htm).
Bradner, Eric. 2017. â€œConway: Trump White House offered â€˜alternative factsâ€™ on crowd size.â€ CNN, (January 23) (https://www.cnn.com/2017/01/22/politics/kellyanne-conway-alternative-facts/index.html).
Brown, Wendy. 2015. Undoing the Demos: Neoliberalismâ€™s Stealth Revolution. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Center for Responsive Politics. 2018. â€œAll the Presidentâ€™s Profiting.â€ (https://www.opensecrets.org/trump/trump-properties?cycle=2016).
Coates, Ta-Nehisi. 2017. â€œThe First White President.â€ The Atlantic, (October) (https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2017/10/the-first-white-president-ta-nehisi-coates/537909/).
Colvin, Geoff. 2019. â€œWhy Trump is Bad for Business.â€ Fortune, (December): 58-69.
Comaroff, Jean and John Comaroff. 2009. Ethnicity, Inc. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cosgrove, Ken. 2018. â€œTrump and the Republican Brand Refresh.â€ Political Marketing in the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election, edited by J. Gillies, pp. 49-64. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Davis, Mike. 2017. â€œThe Great God Trump and the White Working Class.â€ US Politics in an Age of Uncertainty, edited by L. Selfa, pp. 61-83. Chicago, IL: Haymarket Books.
Dator, Jim. 2017. â€œTrumped: The Unsurprising Election of Donald Trump and Our Unequal Opportunity--and Lack of Plausible Visions--for New Governance Design.â€ Journal of Future Studies 21(3): 37-42.
De La Torre, Carlos. 2018. â€œPopulism Revived: Donald Trump and the Latin American Leftist Populists.â€ The Americas, 75(4):733-753.
Deluga, Ronald J. 1997. â€œRelationship Among American Presidential Charismatic Leadership, Narcissism, and Rated Performance.â€ Leadership Quarterly, 8(1): 49-65.
DeVega, Chauncey. 2016. â€œPlaying the Heel: When a presidential candidate channels his pro wrestling persona.â€ The Washington Spectator, (April 14) (https://washingtonspectator.org/trump-wrestlemania/).
Diamond, Jeremy, and Kaitlan Collins. 2018. â€œTrump commutes sentence of Alice Marie Johnson.â€ CNN, (June 6) (https://www.cnn.com/2018/06/06/politics/alice-marie-johnson-commuted-sentence/index.html).
Dick, Hilary Parsons. 2019. â€œâ€œBuild the Wall!â€: Post-Truth on the USâ€“Mexico Border,â€ American Anthropologist, 121(1): 179-185.
Dickerson, Caitlin. 2018. â€œDetention of Migrant Children Has Skyrocketed to Highest Levels Ever.â€ The New York Times, (September 12) (https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/12/us/migrant-children-detention.html).
Disis, Jill. 2017. â€œOprah is coming to supermarket shelves this fall.â€ CNN Money, (August 9) (https://money.cnn.com/2017/08/09/news/companies/oprah-winfrey-kraft-heinz-food-o-thats-good/index.html).
Dodes, Lance. 2019. â€œSociopathy.â€ The Dangerous Case of Donald Trump, edited by B. Lee, pp. 78-87. New York: St. Martinâ€™s Press.
Edison, Mike. 2017. â€œThe Art of the Heel,â€ The Baffler 36.
Eilperin, Juliet, and Darla Cameron. 2017. â€œHow Trump is rolling back Obamaâ€™s legacy.â€ The New York Times, (March 24) (https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/politics/trump-rolling-back-obama-rules/?utm_term=.67cacce0431a).
Fahrenthold, David A. 2018. â€œTrump agrees to shut down his charity amid allegations that he used it for personal and political benefit.â€ The Washington Post, (December 18) (https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/trump-agrees-to-shut-down-his-charity-amid-allegations-he-used-it-for-personal-and-political-benefit/2018/12/18/dd3f5030-021b-11e9-9122-82e98f91ee6f_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.ba8ded305356).
Foster, John Bellamy. 2017. â€œThis Is Not Populism.â€ Monthly Review 69(2):1-24.
Gandal, Stephen. 2018. â€œTrump Tax Cut Is the Gift That Keeps on Giving.â€ Bloomberg, (May 25) (https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2018-05-25/trump-tax-cut-is-gift-that-keeps-on-giving-to-corporate-america).
Gardner, Amy. 2018. â€œWithout evidence, Trump and Sessions warn of voter fraud in Tuesdayâ€™s elections.â€ The Washington Post, (November 5) (https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/without-evidence-trump-and-sessions-warn-of-voter-fraud-in-tuesdays-elections/2018/11/05/e9564788-e115-11e8-8f5f-a55347f48762_story.html?utm_term=.ff1722728dcd).
Gartner, John D. 2019. â€œDonald Trump Is: (A) Bad, (B) Mad, (C) All of the Above.â€ The Dangerous Case of Donald Trump, edited by B. Lee, pp. 88-103. New York: St. Martinâ€™s Press.
Gee, Taylor. 2018. â€œThe Gold-Plated Cabinet.â€ Politico Magazine, (March/April) (https://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2018/03/09/trump-wealthiest-cabinet-members-217336).
Gershon, Llana. 2016. â€œâ€˜Iâ€™m not a businessman, Iâ€™m a business, manâ€™: Typing the neoliberal self into a branded existence.â€ HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 6(3):223-246.
Goffman, Erving.  1959. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Garden City, NY: Doubleday Anchor Books.
Gordon-Reed, Annette. 2018. â€œAmericaâ€™s Original Sin: Slavery and the Legacy of White Supremacy.â€ Foreign Affairs, 97(1) (http://cf.linnbenton.edu/artcom/social_science/clarkd/upload/America's%20Original%20Sin.pdf).
Gramlich, John. 2018. â€œTrump has appointed a larger share of female judges than other GOP presidents, but lags Obama.â€ Pew Research Center, (October 2) (http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/10/02/trump-has-appointed-a-larger-share-of-female-judges-than-other-gop-presidents-but-lags-obama/).
Greenberg, Jonathan. 2018. â€œTrump lied to me about his wealth to get onto the Forbes 400. Here are the tapes.â€ The Washington Post, (April 20) (https://www.washingtonpost.com/outlook/trump-lied-to-me-about-his-wealth-to-get-onto-the-forbes-400-here-are-the-tapes/2018/04/20/ac762b08-4287-11e8-8569-26fda6b404c7_story.html).
Groden, Claire. 2015. â€œDonald Trump Would Be Richer If Heâ€™d Have Invested in Index Funds.â€ Fortune, (August 20) (https://fortune.com/2015/08/20/donald-trump-index-funds/).
Hall, Kira, Donna M. Goldstein, and Matthew Bruce Ingram. 2016. â€œThe Hands of Donald Trump: Entertainment, Gesture, and Spectacle.â€ HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 6(2): 71â€“ 100.
Hanssen, Shelby, and Ken Dilanian. 2019. â€œReps of 22 foreign governments have spent money at Trump properties.â€ NBC, (June 12) (https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/donald-trump/reps-22-foreign-governments-have-spent-money-trump-properties-n1015806).
Harvey, David. 1990. The Condition of Postmodernity. New York: Wiley-Blackwell.
Harvey, David. 2005. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Havercroft, Jonathan, Antje Wiener, Mattias Kumm, and Jeffrey L. Dunoff. 2018. â€œDonald Trump as global constitutional breaching experiment.â€ Global Constitutionalism 7(1):1-13.
Hay, Colin, Michael Lister and David Marsh (eds). 2006. The State: Theories and Issues. London: Red Globe Press.
Hearn, Alison. 2016. â€œTrumpâ€™s â€˜Realityâ€™ Hustle.â€ Television & New Media 17(7): 656-659.
Hearn, Alison, and Stephanie Schoenhoff. 2016. â€œFrom Celebrity to Influencer: Tracing the Diffusion of Celebrity Value across the Data Stream.â€ A Companion to Celebrity, edited by P. D. Marshall and S. Redmond, pp. 194-212. Malden MA: John Wiley & Sons.
Heer, Jeet. 2018. â€œThe Weak, Effective Authoritarian.â€ The New Republic, (January 25) (https://newrepublic.com/article/146748/trump-weak-effective-authoritarian).
Herbert, Jon, Trevor McCrisken, and Andrew Wroe. 2019. The Ordinary Presidency of Donald J. Trump. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Heyer, Kristin E. 2018. â€œInternalized Borders: Immigration Ethics in the Age of Trump.â€ Theological Studies 79(1):146-164.
Hirsh, Michael. 2019. â€œThe Tyrannical Mr. Trump.â€ Foreign Policy, (October 10) (https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/10/02/the-tyrannical-mr-trump-authoritarian-impeachment-constitutional-crisis/).
Holmes, Jack. 2018. â€œThe Next Time a Hurricane Kills 5,000 Americans, Remember Trumpâ€™s Behavior in This FEMA Meeting,â€ Esquire, (June 7) (https://www.esquire.com/news-politics/a21188602/trump-fema-meeting-off-topic/).
Irwin, Douglas. 2019. â€œUnderstanding Trumpâ€™s Trade War,â€ Foreign Policy, (Winter): 62-64.
Jackson, David. 2019. â€œTrump attacks Greta Thunberg for being Timeâ€™s â€˜Person of the Year.â€™â€ USA Today, (December 12) (https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2019/12/12/trump-mocks-greta-thunberg-being-times-person-year/4407278002/).
Johnson, Keith. 2019. â€œHow Trump May Finally Kill the WTO,â€ Foreign Policy, (December 9) (https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/12/09/trump-may-kill-wto-finally-appellate-body-world-trade-organization/).
Kahle, Lynn R., and Pamela M. Homer. 1985. â€œPhysical Attractiveness of the Celebrity Endorser: A Social Adaptation Perspective.â€ Journal of Consumer Research 11(4):954-961.
Kamins, Michael A., and Kamal Gupta. 1994. â€œCongruence between spokesperson and product type: A matchup hypothesis perspective.â€ Psychology & Marketing 11(6):569-586.
Kaputa, Catherine. 2010. U R a brand!: How smart people brand themselves for business success. Boston, MA: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
Kellner, Douglas. 2016. American Nightmare: Donald Trump, Media Spectacle, and Authoritarian Populism. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
Kellner, Douglas. 2017. American Horror Show: Election 2016 and the Ascent of Donald J. Trump. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
Kessler, Glenn. 2018. â€œLara Trumpâ€™s claim that Trump has appointed more women than any other president.â€ The Washington Post, (March 13) (https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/fact-checker/wp/2018/03/13/lara-trumps-claim-that-trump-has-appointed-more-women-than-any-other-president/?utm_term=.fa8aa7f8675c).
Khamis, Susie, Lawrence Ang, and Raymond Welling. 2016. â€œSelf-branding, â€˜micro-celebrityâ€™ and the rise of Social Media Influencers.â€ Celebrity Studies 8(2):191-208.
Kivisto, Peter. 2018. â€œInvestigative Journalismâ€™s Collective Narrative of Trump in Business.â€ Monitoring of Public Opinion: Economic and Social Changes. No. 5: 109-123. doi.org/ 10.14515/monitoring.2018.5.11.
Klein, Naomi. 2000. No Logo. New York: Picador.
Klein, Naomi. 2017. No Is Not Enough: Resisting Trumpâ€™s Shock Politics and Winning the World We Need. Chicago, IL: Haymarket Books.
Kreig, Gregory. 2016. â€œDonald Trump defends size of his penis,â€ CNN Politics, (March 4) (https://www.cnn.com/2016/03/03/politics/donald-trump-small-hands-marco-rubio/index.html).
Krugman, Paul. 2017. â€œTrumpâ€™s Deadly Narcissism.â€ The New York Times, (September 29) (https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/29/opinion/trumps-deadly-narcissism.html).
LaFraniere, Sharon, and Danny Hakim. 2017. â€œTrumpâ€™s Trademark Continues Its March Across the Globe, Raising Eyebrows.â€ The New York Times, (April 11) (https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/11/us/politics/trump-trademark-ethics.html).
Lachmann, Richard. 2019. â€œTrump: authoritarian, just another neoliberal republican, or both?â€ Sociologia, Problemas e PrÃ¡ticas SPP 89:9-31.
Lair, Daniel J., Katie Sullivan, and George Cheney. 2005. â€œMarketization and the Recasting of the Professional Self: The Rhetoric of Personal Branding.â€ Management Communication Quarterly 18(3):307-343.
Lamont, MichÃ¨le, Bo Yun Park, and Elena Ayala-Hurtado. 2017. â€œTrumpâ€™s electoral speeches and his appeal to the American white working class.â€ The British Journal of Sociology 68(S1):S153-S180.
Lane, Sylvan. 2017. â€œTrump to sign executive order, memoranda on financial regulation at Treasury.â€ The Hill, (April 20) (http://thehill.com/policy/finance/329823-trump-to-sign-two-financial-related-executive-orders-at-treasury).
Langman, Lauren. 2018. â€œDonald Trump: morbid symptom of the interregnum Trump as Trope.â€ Monitoring of Public Opinion: Economic and Social Changes No. 5: 124-146. doi. org/10.14515/monitoring.2018.5.12.
Lee, Bandy, ed. 2019. The Dangerous Case of Donald Trump: 35 Psychiatrists and Mental Health Experts Assess a President. 2nd ed. New York: St. Martinâ€™s Press.
Lee, Jasmine C., and Kevin Quealy. 2018. â€œThe 551 People, Places and Things Donald Trump Has Insulted on Twitter: A Complete List,â€ The New York Times, (December 28) (https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/01/28/upshot/donald-trump-twitter-insults.html#the-letter-M).
Lee, Jasmine C., Annie Daniel, Rebecca Lieberman, Blacki Migliozzi and Alexander Burns. 2019. â€œWhich Democrats Are Leading the 2020 Presidential Race?â€ The New York Times, (December 20) (https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/us/elections/democratic-polls.html).
Lesh, Matthew. 2018. â€œNobody Wins in a Global Trade War,â€ Institute of Public Affairs Review 70(2): 54-57.
Levin, Bess. 2018. â€œTrump Pick Mar-A-Lago Member/Handbag Designer for Ambassador to South Africa.â€ Vanity Fair, (November 15) (https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2018/11/lana-marks-mar-a-lago-south-africa).
Levitsky, Steven, and Daniel Ziblatt. 2018. How Democracies Die. New York: Crown.
Levitz, Eric. 2017. â€œDonald Trump Declares America a Democracy Again, in Populist Inaugural Address.â€ New York Magazine, (January 20) (http://nymag.com/daily/intelligencer/2017/01/donald-trump-declares-america-a-democracy-again.html).
Lowrey, Annie, and Steven Johnson. 2018. â€œThe Very Male Trump Administration.â€ The Atlantic, (March 28) (https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2018/03/the-very-male-trump-administration/556568/).
Lynch, David J., Josh Dawsey, and Damian Paletta. 2018. â€œTrump imposes steel and aluminum tariffs on the E.U., Canada and Mexico.â€ The Washington Post, (May 31) (https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/trump-imposes-steel-and-aluminum-tariffs-on-the-european-union-canada-and-mexico/2018/05/31/891bb452-64d3-11e8-a69c-b944de66d9e7_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.d951379fc920).
Malkin, Craig. 2019. â€œPathological Narcissism and Politics: A Lethal Mix.â€ The Dangerous Case of Donald Trump, edited by B. Lee, pp. 46-63. New York: St. Martinâ€™s Press.
Malloy, Allie. 2018. â€œTrump signs MLK Jr. proclamation amid cries of racism.â€ CNN, (January 12) (https://www.cnn.com/2018/01/12/politics/donald-trump-martin-luther-king-jr/index.html).
Manza, Jeff and Ned Crowley. 2018. Ethnonationalism and the rise of Donald Trump. Contexts 17(1): 28-33.
Marchand, Roland. 1985. Advertising the American Dream: Making Way for Modernity 1920-1940. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Marx, Karl.  1992. Capital Volume 1, translated by Ben Fowkes. New York: Penguin.
Marx, Karl and Frederich Engels.  1969. â€œManifesto of the Communist Party,â€ Marx/Engels Selected Works, Vol. One, pp. 98-137. Moscow: Progress Publishers.
McLuhan, Marshall.  1994. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Mihajlovic, Radomir, Lyudmila Zharova, Jelena Mihajlovic, and Vito Leggio. 2017. â€œSystems Analysis of Political E-Marketing and Personal Branding in the USA Presidential Elections of 2016.â€ International Journal of Economics and Law 7(19): 45-60.
Miroff, Nick. 2019. â€œSmugglers are sawing through new sections of Trumpâ€™s border wall.â€ The Washington Post, (November 2) (https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/smugglers-are-sawing-through-new-sections-of-trumps-border-wall/2019/11/01/25bf8ce0-fa72-11e9-ac8c-8eced29ca6ef_story.html?arc404=true).
Montoya, Peter. 2002. The Personal Branding Phenomenon. Personal Branding Press Publishing.
Montoya, Peter, and Tim Vandehey. 2009. The Brand Called You: Create a Personal Brand that Wins Attention and Grows Your Business. New York: McGraw Hill.
Moore, Heidi N. 2018. â€œTrump keeps attacking corporations. But do they really need to fear him?â€ The Washington Post, (April 4) (https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/posteverything/wp/2018/04/04/trump-keeps-attacking-corporations-but-do-they-really-need-to-fear-him/?utm_term=.29074b5ad5a4).
Nasiripour, Shahien and Caleb Melby. 2019. â€œDonald Trump Net Worth Rises to $3 Billion Despite Business Setbacks.â€ Bloomberg (June 12) (https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-06-12/trump-s-net-worth-rises-to-3-billion-despite-business-setbacks).
Needham, Vicki. 2018. â€œUS businesses express concern about tariffs on Chinese imports.â€ The Hill, (March 19) (https://thehill.com/policy/finance/379176-us-businesses-express-concern-about-tariffs-on-chinese-imports).
Nelson, Brian R. 2006. The Making of the Modern State: A Theoretical Evolution. Palgrave: New York.
Nicolino, Patricia F. 2001. The Complete Idiotâ€™s Guide to Brand Management. Indianapolis, IN: Alpha Books.
Nixon Ron. 2018. â€œMigrant Girlâ€™s â€˜Horrific, Tragicâ€™ Death Is Not Its Responsibility, White House Says.â€ The New York Times, (December 14) (https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/14/us/politics/migrant-girl-dead-border-patrol.html?module=inline).
Norris, Pippa, and Ronald Inglehart. 2019. Cultural Backlash: Trump, Brexit, and Authoritarian Populism. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Olins, Wally. 2012. â€œHow Brands are Taking over the Corporation.â€ The Expressive Organization: Linking Identity, Reputation, and the Corporate Brand, edited by M. Schultz, M. J. Hatch, and M. H. Larsen, pp. 49-65. New York: Oxford University Press.
Olsen, Gorm Rye. 2019. â€œDonald Trump and â€˜America firstâ€™: the road ahead is open.â€ International Politics. (September 27): 1-19. doi:10.1057/s41311-019-00203-w.
PeÌrez-Curiel, Concha. 2019. â€œPolitical influencers. A study of Donald Trumpâ€™s personal brand on Twitter and its impact on the media and users.â€ Communication & Society 32(1): 57-75.
Peters, Tom. 1997. â€œThe Brand Called You,â€ Fast Company, (August 31) (https://www.fastcompany.com/28905/brand-called-you).
Pierson, Paul. 2017. â€œAmerican hybrid: Donald Trump and the strange merger of populism and plutocracy.â€ The British Journal of Sociology 68(S1): S105-S119.
Porter, Michael E., Jay W. Rivkin, Mihir A. Desai, Katherine M Gehl, William R. Kerr, and Manjari Raman. 2019. â€œA Recovery Squandered: The State of U.S. Competitiveness 2019.â€ Harvard Business School Survey on U.S. Competitiveness (https://www.hbs.edu/competitiveness/Documents/a-recovery-squandered.pdf).
Pramuk, Jacob. 2018. â€œTrump signs the biggest rollback of bank rules since the financial crisis.â€ CNBC, (May 24) (https://www.cnbc.com/2018/05/24/trump-signs-bank-bill-rolling-back-some-dodd-frank-regulations.html).
Prechel, Harland. 2000. Big Business and the State: Historical Transitions and Corporate Transformations, 1880s-1990s. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Renton, David. 2019. The New Authoritarians: Convergence on the Right. London, UK: Pluto Press.
Riley, Dylan. 2018. â€œWhat is Trump?â€ New Left Review 114: 5-31.
Risman, Barbara J. 2018. Where the Millennials Will Take Us: A New Generation Wrestles With the Gender Structure. New York: Oxford University Press.
Robinson, William I. 2017. â€œTrumpism, 21st Century Fascism, and the Dictatorship of the Transnational Capitalist Class.â€ Social Justice: A Journal of Crime, Conflict & World Order, (January 20) (http://www.socialjusticejournal.org/trumpism-21st-century-fascism-and-the-dictatorship-of-the-transnational-capitalist-class/).
Rogers, Katie. 2015. â€œHillary Clinton Is â€˜Not My Abuela,â€™ Critics Say.â€ The New York Times, (December 23) (https://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/24/us/politics/hillary-clinton-is-not-my-abuela-critics-say.html).
Romero, Mary. 2018. â€œTrumpâ€™s Immigration Attacks, in Brief.â€ Contexts 17(1): 34-41.
Sachs, Jeffrey D. 2019. â€œThe Dire Warning of Mental Health Experts.â€ The Dangerous Case of Donald Trump, edited by B. Lee, pp. xix-xxvi. New York: St. Martinâ€™s Press.
Samuels, Brett. 2018. â€œTrump donates quarterly salary to Department of Veterans Affairs.â€ The Hill, (May 17) (http://thehill.com/homenews/administration/388174-trump-donates-quarterly-salary-to-department-of-veterans-affairs).
Schulte, Elizabeth. 2017. â€œThe Misogynist-In-Chief: The Stakes for Womenâ€™s Rights in the Trump Era.â€ US Politics in an Age of Uncertainty, edited by L. Selfa, pp.143-155. Chicago, IL: Haymarket Books.
Shafer, Jessica Gant. 2017. â€œDonald Trumpâ€™s â€˜Political Incorrectnessâ€™: Neoliberalism as Frontstage Racism on Social Media.â€ Social Media + Society 3(3):1-10.
Shan, Weijian. 2019. â€œThe Unwinnable Trade War.â€ Foreign Affairs, (November/December): 99-108.
Shear, Michael D., and Lawrence K. Altman. 2018. â€œTrump Has Perfect Cognitive Test Score, White House Says.â€ The New York Times, (January 16) (https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/16/us/politics/trump-health-exam-doctor-cognitive-test.html).
Shear, Michael D., and Matthew Rosenberg. 2018. â€œTrump Swears In Gina Haspel as C.I.A. Director, Praising Agency as the â€˜Most Eliteâ€™ in the World.â€ The New York Times, (May 21) (https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/21/us/politics/trump-haspel-cia.html).
Sherwood, Arthur Percy. 2018. â€œTracing the American State of Exception from George W. Bush, Barack Obama, and Donald Trump Presidencies.â€ Western Journal of Legal Studies 8(1): (https://ojs.lib.uwo.ca/index.php/uwojls/article/view/5706/4800).
Spear, Sara, and Stuart Roper. 2013. â€œUsing corporate stories to build the corporate brand: an impression management perspective.â€ Journal of Product & Brand Management 22(7):491-501.
Stiglitz, Joseph E. 2018. â€œTrump and Globalization.â€ Journal of Policy Modeling 40(3):515-528.
Sugarman, Jeff. 2015. â€œNeoliberalism and Psychological Ethics.â€ Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 35(2):103-116.
Sullivan, Andrew. 2018. â€œAmerica Takes the Next Step Toward Tyranny.â€ New York Magazine, (March 23) (http://nymag.com/daily/intelligencer/2018/03/america-takes-the-next-step-toward-tyranny.html).
Sultan, Niv M. 2017. â€œElection 2016: Trumpâ€™s free media helped keep cost down, but fewer donors provided more of the cash.â€ Center for Responsive Politics (April 13) (https://www.opensecrets.org/news/2017/04/election-2016-trump-fewer-donors-provided-more-of-the-cash/).
Tani, Maxwell. 2016. â€œMarco Rubio apologizes to Trump for the crude remark about his hands.â€ Business Insider, (May 29) (https://www.businessinsider.com/marco-rubio-trump-small-hands-2016-5).
Tansey, Michael J. 2017 â€œWhy â€˜Crazy Like a Foxâ€™ versus â€˜Crazy Like a Crazyâ€™ Really Matters: Delusional Disorder, Admiration of Brutal Dictators, the Nuclear Codes, and Trump.â€ The Dangerous Case of Donald Trump, edited by B. Lee, pp. 110-125. New York: St. Martinâ€™s Press.
Thayer, Kate. 2019. â€œViolence Against Women Act lapse is part of government shutdown. Advocates: What message does that send?.â€ Chicago Tribune, (January 3) (https://www.chicagotribune.com/lifestyles/ct-life-violence-against-women-act-expired-20190102-story.html).
The Editorial Board. 2018. â€œTrumpâ€™s Heartless Transgender Military Ban Gets a Second Shot.â€ The New York Times, (March 28) (https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/28/opinion/trump-transgender-military-ban.html).
Thomas, Will. 2017. â€œPresident Trump Signs Two Bills Promoting Women in STEM Fields.â€ American Institute of Physics, (March 2) (https://www.aip.org/fyi/2017/president-trump-signs-two-bills-promoting-women-stem-fields).
Tracey, Sean. 2017. â€œTrust, Trump, and the Turnout: A Marketers Point of View.â€ American Behavioral Scientist 61(5): 526-532.
Trump, Donald J. 2019. â€œLetter to Nancy Pelosiâ€ The White House, (December 17) (https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/Letter-from-President-Trump-final.pdf).
Veblen, Thorstein.  2007. The Theory of the Leisure Class. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Virilio, Paul.  2006. Speed and Politics, translated by Mark Polizzotti. Los Angeles: Semiotext(e).
Virilio, Paul.  2012. Lost Dimension, translated by Daniel Moshenberg. Los Angeles: Semiotext(e).
Virilio, Paul.  2000. Polar Inertia, translated by Patrick Camiller. London: Sage.
Watts AL., Lilienfeld SO, Smith SF, Miller JD, Campbell WK, Waldman ID, Rubenzer SJ and Faschingbauer TJ (2013) â€œThe Double-Edged Sword of Grandiose Narcissism: Implications for Successful and Unsuccessful Leadership Among U.S. Presidents.â€ Psychological Science 24(12): 2379-2389.
Wike, Richard, Bruce Stokes, Jacob Poushter, Laura Silver, Janell Fetterolf and Kat Devlin. 2018. â€œAmericaâ€™s international image continues to suffer.â€ PEW Research Center, (October 1) (https://www.pewresearch.org/global/2018/10/01/americas-international-image-continues-to-suffer/).
Williams, Pete. 2019. â€œSupreme Court to rule on release of Trumpâ€™s tax records.â€ NBC News, (December 13) (https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/politics-news/supreme-court-agrees-hear-trump-appeals-subpoena-fights-over-financial-n1101901).
Wolin, Sheldon S. 2008. Democracy Incorporated: Managed Democracy and the Specter of Inverted Totalitarianism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Wong, Dorcas, and Alexander Chipman Koty. 2019. â€œThe US-China Trade War: A Timeline,â€ China Briefing, (December 19) (https://www.china-briefing.com/news/the-us-china-trade-war-a-timeline/).
Woolf, Nicky. 2018. â€œFBI Director Wray contradicts Trump: Kavanaugh investigation was â€˜limitedâ€™ by White House.â€ New Statesman America, (October 10) (https://www.newstatesman.com/world/north-america/2018/10/fbi-director-wray-contradicts-trump-kavanaugh-investigation-was-limited).
Ye Hee Lee, Michelle, and Anu Narayanswamy. 2019. â€œTrumpâ€™s 2016 campaign was run on a shoestring. His reelection machine is huge â€” and armed with consultants.â€ The Washington Post (October 8) (https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2019/10/08/trumps-campaign-was-run-shoestring-his-reelection-machine-is-huge-armed-with-consultants/).
Zimbardo, Philip, and Rosemary Sword. 2019. â€œUnbridled and Extreme Present Hedonism: How the Leader of the Free World Has Proven Time and Again He Is Unfit for Duty.â€ The Dangerous Case of Donald Trump, edited by B. Lee, pp. 21-45. New York: St. Martinâ€™s Press.
Ziv, Ronen, Amanda Graham, and Liqun Cao. 2019. â€œAmerica First? Trump, Crime, and Justice Internationally.â€ Victims and Offenders: An International Journal of Evidence-based Research, Policy, and Practice 14(8):997-1009.
Copyright (c) 2020 Steven Alfonso Panageotou and Joel M. Crombez
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors of papers published in Fast Capitalism hold copyright to their work. Requests for permission to reprint should be directed to the author.
Fast Capitalism is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.